Author(s): Eugene Rogan
In 1914 the Ottoman Empire was depleted of men and resources after years of war against Balkan nationalist and Italian forces. But in the aftermath of the assassination in Sarajevo, the powers of Europe were sliding inexorably toward war, and not even the Middle East could escape the vast and enduring consequences of one of the most destructive conflicts in human history. The Great War spelled the end of the Ottomans, unleashing powerful forces that would forever change the face of the Middle East. In The Fall of the Ottomans, award-winning historian Eugene Rogan brings the First World War and its immediate aftermath in the Middle East to vivid life, uncovering the often ignored story of the region's crucial role in the conflict. Bolstered by German money, arms, and military advisors, the Ottomans took on the Russian, British, and French forces, and tried to provoke Jihad against the Allies in their Muslim colonies. Unlike the static killing fields of the Western Front, the war in the Middle East was fast-moving and unpredictable, with the Turks inflicting decisive defeats on the Entente in Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, and Gaza before the tide of battle turned in the Allies' favor.
The great cities of Baghdad, Jerusalem, and, finally, Damascus fell to invading armies before the Ottomans agreed to an armistice in 1918. The postwar settlement led to the partition of Ottoman lands between the victorious powers, and laid the groundwork for the ongoing conflicts that continue to plague the modern Arab world. A sweeping narrative of battles and political intrigue from Gallipoli to Arabia, The Fall of the Ottomans is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the Great War and the making of the modern Middle East.
Eugene Rogan is a Fellow of St. Antony's College and lectures in the Modern History of the Middle East at the University of Oxford. The author of The Arabs, Rogan lives in Oxford, England.
List of Maps A Note on Nomenclature Preface 1. A Revolution and Three Wars, 1908-1913 2. The Peace Before the Great War 3. A Global Call to Arms 4. Opening Salvos: Basra, Aden, Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean 5. Launching Jihad: Ottoman Campaigns in the Caucasus and the Sinai 6. The Assault on the Dardanelles 7. The Annihilation of the Armenians 8. The Ottoman Triumph at Gallipoli 9. The Invasion of Mesopotamia 10. The Siege of Kut 11. The Arab Revolt 12. Losing Ground: The Fall of Baghdad, the Sinai, the Jerusalem 13. From Armistice to Armistice Conclusion: The Fall of the Ottomans Acknowledgements Notes Bibliography Photo Credits Index